There are lots of individual processes which vary in their method of layer or additive manufacturing.

The individual processes will differ depending on the material and machine technology used.

In 2010, the American Society for Testing and Materials formulated a set of standards that classify the range of Additive Manufacturing processes into seven categories, they are:

VAT Photopolymerisation: Vat polymerisation uses a vat of liquid photopolymer resin, out of which the model is constructed layer by layer.

Material Jetting: Material jetting creates objects in a similar method to a two-dimensional ink jet printer. Material is jetted onto a build platform using either a continuous or Drop on Demand (DOD) approach.

Binder Jetting: The binder jetting process uses two materials; a powder-based material and a binder. The binder is usually in liquid form and the build material in powder form. A print head moves horizontally along the x and y axes of the machine and deposits alternating layers of the build material and the binding material.

Material Extrusion: Fuse deposition modelling (FDM) is a common material extrusion process and is trademarked by the company Stratasys. Material is drawn through a nozzle, where it is heated and is then deposited layer by layer. The nozzle can move horizontally and a platform moves up and down vertically after each new layer is deposited.

Powder Bed Fusion: The Powder Bed Fusion process includes the following commonly used printing techniques: Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), Electron beam melting (EBM), Selective heat sintering (SHS), Selective laser melting (SLM) and Selective laser sintering (SLS).

Sheet Lamination: Sheet lamination processes include ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) and laminated object manufacturing (LOM). The Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing process uses sheets or ribbons of metal, which are bound together using ultrasonic welding.

Directed Energy Deposition: Directed Energy Deposition (DED) covers a range of terminology: ‘Laser engineered net shaping, directed light fabrication, direct metal deposition, 3D laser cladding’ It is a more complex printing process commonly used to repair or add additional material to existing components.

The 3D Consultancy enables clients to benefit from the latest design and manufacturing expertise in Additive Manufacturing.